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Article Dans Une Revue Physical Review A Année : 2021

Noisy quantum metrology with the assistance of indefinite causal order


A generic qubit unitary operator affected by depolarizing noise is duplicated and inserted in a quantum switch process, realizing a superposition of causal orders. The characterization of the resulting switched quantum channel is worked out for its action on the joint state of the probe-control qubit pair. The switched channel is then specifically investigated for the important metrological task of phase estimation on the noisy unitary operator, with the performance assessed by the Fisher information, classical or quantum. A comparison is made with conventional techniques of estimation where the noisy unitary is directly probed in a one-stage or two-stage cascade with definite order or several uses of them with two or more qubits. In the switched channel with indefinite order, specific properties are reported, meaningful for estimation and not present with conventional techniques. It is shown that the control qubit, although it never directly interacts with the unitary, can nevertheless be measured alone for effective estimation, while discarding the probe qubit that interacts with the unitary. Also, measurement of the control qubit maintains the possibility of efficient estimation in difficult conditions where conventional estimation becomes less efficient, as for instance with ill-configured input probes, or in blind situations when the axis of the unitary is unknown. Effective estimation by measuring the control qubit remains possible even when the input probe tends to align with the axis of the unitary, or with a fully depolarized input probe, while in these conditions conventional estimation becomes inoperative. Measurement of the probe qubit of the switched channel is also analyzed and shown to add useful capabilities for phase estimation. The results contribute to the ongoing identification and analysis of the properties and capabilities of switched quantum channels with indefinite order for information processing and uncover new possibilities for quantum estimation and qubit metrology.
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Dates et versions

hal-03184730 , version 1 (15-02-2023)



François Chapeau-Blondeau. Noisy quantum metrology with the assistance of indefinite causal order. Physical Review A, 2021, 103 (3) (pages 032615,1-18), ⟨10.1103/PhysRevA.103.032615⟩. ⟨hal-03184730⟩
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